Gao, doctor of history/geography, Fu Dan University and
professor of the history, Zhengzhou University, while at a
conference of the Kueykutzu branch of the Pre-Chin Era History Association,
was asked: “Are native Americans the descendants of Shang
Dynasty Chinese?” He expressed that he supported this theory.
He also provided some new evidence.
research, foreign scholars discovered that stone anchors found
along the seashore of the Pacific Ocean in North America are
similar to stone anchors of Shang and Zhou Dynasty in shape
and quality. In Maya ruins sacrificial altars and jade
carvings also have cultural similarities to the ones from
to ethnology, the skin and hair color of American Indians
match Asian ethnic groups.
- When the
Shang Dynasty fell, many were enslaved. This provided motive
for others to escape and relocate.
- A Shang
Dynasty poem states: “Shandu's reign included overseas
currents made overseas ventures by the Shang people possible.
Gao stated that there are large, circular, warm currents
moving clockwise in the north Pacific Ocean and the seas in
that vicinity. This warm ocean current starts just north of
the equator in the Pacific and goes through the northern part
of Luzon Islands and east of Taiwan. From there it flows into
the Taiwan Strait, meets at Zhoushan islands and reaches the
East Sea. At the southern part of Chuchow in Japan, there is
one north bound branch which forms the Tsushima current. This
current goes through the Tsugaru Strait to return to the
Pacific Ocean. This north bound large, warm ocean current is
also called the Japan Current.
boats of Shang travelers sailed to approximately 35 – 42
degrees latitude, they rode the “west wind belt.” At this
point, boats, even without sails, can travel speedily through
the ocean to the west coast of North America.
Gao stated that
the scale of this northern Pacific Ocean current is massive.
The average width is 150 kilometers, water flows at 3 to 10
kilometer per hour. This is very favorable for boats following
the ocean flow.
this warm current averages 20 degrees Celsius in the winter
and 27 degrees Celsius in the summer and it is 6 – 7 degrees
warmer than nearby ocean areas. The abundant fish source in
this warm current belt guaranteed the travelers' food supply.
after the last emperor Chou of Shang fell, mastery of this
navigation technology afforded overseas escape for those who
otherwise soon would have been enslaved by the new ruler. This
escape offered an alternative to their fate. Gao concluded
“Once the theory of Shang Dynasty Chinese escaping eastward
and landing in North America is accepted, one can then easily
explain the cultural, artistic objects and fossils found in
America and answer the ethnological questions of origin of
earlier years, the Chinese master, Guowei Wang, also supported
been numerous studies conducted before on Shang Dynasty
Chinese migration eastward to America. The earliest
assumption was made in 19th century by a translator
from London [cannot decipher the name]. In America’s
First Civilization published in 1968, Michael Coe wrote
that the Olmec civilization possibly came from Yin-Shang
master Zhenyu Luo and Guowei Wang espoused the possibility of
the flight of Shang Chinese to America. Muruo Guo also
supported this theory. In recent years a professor from
University of Central Oklahoma, H. Mike Hsu, further explained
this theory in Origin of the Olmec Civilization
as also had Chinese scholar, Da Wang and his associates.
28th, 1993, a news article published on New
People’s Daily titled “American Indians' Ancestors Traced
Back to China” introduced the study results from American
professor, Douglas Wallace. Wallace thought part of current
American Indians' DNA the same as Asians’.
1992, an article published in China Voice News by Dayou
Wang, Baochung Song, and Shuang Wang indicated that the
American Indians currently residing in North America are
indeed descendants from Shang Dynasty Chinese who crossed the
ocean 3000 years ago.
announced that archaeologist at the Olmec cultural ruins of
south central Mexico found 16 statues and 6 celts in an
excavation there. The LaVenta sacrificial altar was buried
several meters deep. The artistic writings on the celts were
carved the same way as Shang Chinese hieroglyph. This article
suggested that the writing on one of the celts is rows of
names of Shang Dynasty ancestors. It also concluded that
today's American Indians and Maya who live on the massive land
of America are indeed the escapees of Shang Dynasty who
crossed the Pacific Ocean 3000 years ago.
Questioning the reliability of gene analysis
American Indians' composures much different than Asians' if
they indeed came from mainland China during the Shang Dynasty?
scholarly studies show that ethnological adaptability causes
the differences. Assuming that American Indians came from
mainland China, their composures would change over time
because of a different living environment.
Shi Xiu Liao,
Chief of Genetics Research, Medical Department, People’s
University in Henan said that there are similarities between
different ethnic groups as well as distinctions. For now,
genetics testing can only make partial conclusion about
whether two ethnic groups are actually from the same origin.
This is because there are three aspects to consider when using
the samples represent the whole?
quantities of samples adequate? And where do the samples
- What part
of the cell is adopted for use when collecting samples?
expressed that external environmental change can cause gene
mutation. Cultural and geographical factors all play a role
in influencing genetic mutation. For example: people who live
on a plateau with a high altitude can tolerate a lower oxygen
level than people who live on a plain. In summary, genes
change in a direction that is favorable to their survival.
This change only shows over numerous generations.
writing of hieroglyphs on celts in Mexico is not Chinese.
that Shang Chinese crossed the ocean and landed in America has
been hotly debated in recent years among the experts in
archaeology and ethnology. Among the scholars who oppose this
are Nai Xia, and Rongqu Luo.
textual research Luo accrued much information. He contended
that sailing was an impossible presumption. Luo wrote that the
ancient American civilization and its artifacts were created
independently by hardworking Indians who originated and
developed from that land over a long period of time. He
thought they were definitely not adopted from another
culture. Although some artifacts and objects which
accidentally matched those in Asian civilization can be found
in ancient American civilization, there are many more objects
that are distinct. These American objects carry very unique
qualities that are no where to be found in old Chinese
in 1953, American archaeologist found 16 statues and 6 celts
at the sacrificial center of Olmec ruins in Mexico. Dayou Wang
thought it was Shang Dynasty hieroglyph writing. He translated
into a list of names of Chinese ancestors; such as: Tse You,
Shaw Hao, Di Tse, Jian Di, Duo Yeh, Chi, Shandu, Wang Hai,
Shang Chia etc.
Tse Chiou had
doubts about these writing and their translation and presented
his arguments on the New Wave website. Chiou said that
“According to Dayou Wang,” the hieroglyph writing on La Venta
celts is actually a combination of three different kinds of
old Chinese hieroglyph writings, namely Ta-Wen-Ko culture
hieroglyph, Shang hieroglyph, and Three-Generation-Gee-King
hieroglyph writing. He believed it very questionable that the
owners of the LaVenta celts were truly Shang Chinese.
Why are there
just as many differences as similarities when comparing
writings on La Venta celts and those of Shang Chinese? The
similarities occur only in simpler words. It is more difficult
to match complicated character designs. Some of the more
elaborate ones do not even look alike. For example, one of the
ancestor's names was only partially the same. It is shaped
like a bird. However, the LaVenta bird shape, which is
supposedly the same word, is curved very differently than the
Shang hieroglyph bird shape is. He argued that the former is
an exact bird shape and the latter is an abstract
representation. In short, the Shang hieroglyphs are more
surface, these same time frame and writing similarities
provide support to the theory that Shang Chinese escaped
overseas and landed in America. However, what caused such a
big change of Shang Chinese's hieroglyph writing within just a
few decades? Some of change is even regression (simpler
characters), instead of progression (more sophisticated). If
La Venta celts were made for honoring ancestors, the writing
would have had to be done in a delicate and holy manner. Shang
Chinese were very superstitious. Special, highly educated
scholars served the royals. They would have continued
educating future generations and passing down traditional
Shang hieroglyph writing.
book, there was no mention from Pangung through the next 200
years of ceremonies or memorials honoring ancestors. One would
wonder why would after 200 years of no ancestor worship, that
Yin-Shang Chinese would restart these religious practices in
Translated By Iris (I-Chi) Britton
Rebuttal by Charlotte Harris Rees
to counterpoints in the above Chinese article
I am excited
about this article because it shows that some Chinese scholars
recognize their ancient connections with Native Americans.
feel that the counter arguments in the article are weak.
- Sailing to
America is not an “impossible feat” and has been
demonstrated in recent years by several independent groups
in very small craft. See explanation of this and the points
below in my book Secret Maps of the Ancient World.
- It has
long been established through DNA that the natives of the
Americas came from Asia and did not “originate and develop”
separately. One would presume that not every artifact in
America would match Asian ones.
counterpoint argues that Olmec writing is at best simplified
Shang and therefore a digression. Is this in effect arguing
that China’s recent simplification of their writing is a
digression? It takes much imagination and work to simplify
and condense. That people in a new land slightly change
their writing is seen over the world.
News and World Report November 4, 1996 stated that Han
Ping Chen, China’s leading authority on Shang Chinese,
viewed the Olmec celts from La Venta and identified Shang
Chinese characters on them and pointed them out in his well
worn Shang dictionaries. How can any lesser authority
there was no mention of ancestor worship for the 200 years
prior to the end of the Shang because it was so common.
Historians tend to write about the uncommon. Besides,
ancestor worship continued in China for thousands of years
after that so why not with the Chinese who went to the